A Brief Introduction to LIDAR Technology
Light Detection and Ranging is not, at this point, a logical method only for experts. LIDAR technology has become an essential device for many industries. It's changing urban planning forms and has gotten the leading technology through innovative ventures, such as self-driving vehicles.
With LIDAR technology on the ascent, now is the ideal opportunity to learn what LIDAR is, How it's working, and how to utilize it. So here's all that you need to know about it.
1. What Is LIDAR?
The first thing is, what exactly is LIDAR? To lay it out plainly. LIDAR is a remote sensing and surveying technology. It utilizes laser scanners to measure the distance and dimensions of landscapes and buildings.
LIDAR sends light pulses to objects such as buildings, roads, and sidewalks, and then the sensor measures the time required for light waves to bounce off the obstacle or surface and return to the system. The LIDAR system then calculates the measurements using the speed of the light pulses.
LIDAR first showed up during the 1960s when the laser scanners are mounted to planes.
Nevertheless, it just truly got well known after the introduction of GPS during the 1980s. With GPS, the data gathered from LIDAR scans were utilized for precise geospatial measurements. These measurements would now be able to be used to create digital 3D models representing the scanned landscape.
2. How Does LIDAR Work?
Much like radar utilizes radio waves and Sonar uses light waves, LIDAR utilizes light waves from a laser to detect objects. The LIDAR device considers the absolute time the light takes to hit the target object and reflect it to the scanner. When this occurs, the device ascertains the total distance with the assistance of the velocity of light. This process is additionally called the "Time of Flight" measurement.
The present LIDAR systems are sufficiently enough to fire up to 500,000 pulses every second comfortably.
All of the pulses collected gathered during a LIDAR scan are placed into a point cloud. The point cloud would then be utilized to make 3D meshes and models with practical point cloud processing software.
These 3D meshes assume an essential job in 3D modeling for various fields, such as construction, architecture, medical imaging, manufacturing, 3D printing, and other virtual reality applications.
3. Different Components of the LIDAR System
LIDAR systems are comprised of several different components that all work together to gather point cloud data. Many people realize that LIDAR systems use lasers. Still, at the same time, it is worth knowing about the other vital parts that make data generation, recording, and geo-referencing a hassle-free process.
Below are some of LIDAR Systems' critical components:
Light of the laser bounces from the LIDAR device to surfaces and items. Then, it reflects back to the sensor, which at that point, gauges the velocity of these light pulses.
Various types of LIDAR can utilize multiple lights. For instance, bathymetric LIDAR systems use both infrared light pulses and green lasers.
The scanner determines how far the laser light can reach and how fast the landscapes' scanning occurs. They additionally use mirrors to increase the laser's light range.
· GPS (Global Positioning System) & IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit)
GPS is the thing that made LIDAR the incredible instrument it is today. Position and route systems permit airborne LIDAR to determine the specific area of the system with the goal that measurements are determined accurately.
The sensor in a LIDAR system is the thing that measures light velocity and distance. Light is transmitted from the sensor to items or surfaces and afterward bounced back to the sensor. So this part is practically similar to the brain of the LIDAR system.
Each of these components assumes an essential role in the LIDAR process and makes it fantastically simple for researchers to get the required data in the most precise manner conceivable.
4. Applications of LIDAR Technology
LIDAR technology makes it incredibly simple to gather critical data points in remote areas and use them for different short-term and long-term developmental goals. Here are some of LiDAR's most popular uses.
LIDAR can determine the ocean's depth and quantify the phytoplankton's biomass and fluorescence on the ocean surface. The process is usually severe and time-consuming, but LIDAR makes it easy and hassle-free.
Agriculture & Archaeology
Besides analyzing the yield rates on agriculture fields, LIDAR technology can be utilized in manure, seed scatterings, and crop exploration.
LIDAR permits scientists to create a topological guide of the fields. Sun exposure and slopes can be featured, making it simpler to figure out where to apply fertilizer for the most significant production.
LIDAR is also used in archaeology and the mapping and planning of forest canopies. LIDAR quickly produces high-resolution datasets and offers 100 % accurate field analysis information.
Digital Elevation Model (Also known as Digital Terrain Model or DTM)
LIDAR technology has x, y, and z co-ordinates and can rapidly produce three-dimensional representations of terrain elevations on earth. It is used in constructing bridges, buildings, and roads to capture the width, length, and height of the surface.
The high-quality and data-rich digital elevation maps created by airborne LIDAR assist researchers in uncovering other geomorphic secrets.
Using these maps, researchers can detect faults — any discontinuity within the rock's volume — and measure uplifts.
For surveying borders, detecting suspicious activities and objects, military personnel from different countries use LIDAR and establish high-resolution cartography of remote locations — making LIDAR necessary to national security.
In collecting information on river flow intensity, width, and depth underwater, green light laser in LIDAR technology is critical. This data is used to create models of 3D rivers and flood fringe maps.
LIDAR can also be used for autonomous vehicles, biological and conservation, atmosphere, mining, astronomy, robots, spaceflight, transportation, and wind farm optimization.
5. Advantages of using LiDAR
Data can be quickly and accurately collected:
LIDAR is a technology for airborne sensing that allows data collection to be fast and extremely accurate due to the positional advantage.
Surface data with higher sample density:
LIDAR gives a much higher surface density than other data collection methods, such as photogrammetry. Which leads to improves the findings of specific applications, such as flood plain delineation.
Ability to collect elevation data in dense forests:
LIDAR technology can collect elevation data from densely populated forests due to its high penetrative capabilities. So It allows even the densely forested areas to be mapped.
Ability to used day and night:
LIDAR technology can be used day and night using an active illumination sensor. Light variations, such as darkness and light, are not affected. This enhances its efficiency.
No geometric distortions:
LIDAR sensors, unlike other data collection methods, like angular landscape, are not affected by any geometric distortions.
The integration with other data sources:
LIDAR technology is a versatile technology that can be integrated with other data sources, making it easier to analyze complex data automatically.
It has the least human reliance:
LIDAR technology, unlike photogrammetry and surveying, has the least human dependency since the more significant part of the processes is automated. Lidar automation additionally guarantees considerable time is spared, particularly during the data collection and data analysis phase.
It isn't influenced by extreme weather:
LIDAR technology is autonomous of extreme weather conditions, for example, intense sunlight and other weather situations. This implies that information can, in any case, be collected under these conditions and sent for analysis.
It can be utilized to map out of reach and featureless areas:
LIDAR technology can be used to map difficult to reach featureless regions, such as high mountains and thick snow territories.
LIDAR technology is a more economical method of remote sensing in various applications, particularly when it comes to large areas of land because it is fast and very accurate.
Future Expectations of LIDAR technology
During the last 20 years, LIDAR has changed significantly, with more than 1 million points per second can be achieved with a precision of 5 mm. Land surveyors and engineers can use this technology depending on the project and several tools. LIDAR manipulates the point cloud and sting points: like a street light, a sidewalk removes items that should not be present.
In the coming years, technological innovation in LIDAR will lead to LIDAR's growth in several applications, including infrastructure, transit, transmission lines, and flood mapping. LIDAR is yet to assist beyond its existing use and impacts on human life, social, healthcare, environmental, and economic spheres.